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CEN Dementia Review

CEN Dementia

CEN Dementia (2020)

Dementia describes a group of symptoms affecting memory, thinking and social abilities severely enough to interfere with your daily life. It isn't a specific disease, but several different diseases may cause dementia. Though dementia generally involves memory loss, memory loss has different causes. Having memory loss alone doesn't mean you have dementia. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of a progressive dementia in older adults, but there are a number of causes of dementia. Depending on the cause, some dementia symptoms may be reversible.

CEN Dementia - Signs and Symptoms

Cognitive changes
  • Memory loss, which is usually noticed by a spouse or someone else
  • Difficulty communicating or finding words
  • Difficulty with visual and spatial abilities, such as getting lost while driving
  • Difficulty reasoning or problem-solving
  • Difficulty handling complex tasks
  • Difficulty with planning and organizing
  • Difficulty with coordination and motor functions
  • Confusion and disorientation
Psychological changes
  • Personality changes
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Inappropriate behavior
  • Paranoia
  • Agitation
  • Hallucinations

CEN Dementia - Causes

Dementia is caused by damage to or loss of nerve cells and their connections in the brain. Depending on the area of the brain that's affected by the damage, dementia can affect people differently and cause different symptoms. Dementias are often grouped by what they have in common, such as the protein or proteins deposited in the brain or the part of the brain that's affected. Some diseases look like dementias, such as those caused by a reaction to medications or vitamin deficiencies, and they might improve with treatment.

CEN Dementia - Risk Factors

Risk factors that can't be changed
  • Age. The risk rises as you age, especially after age 65. However, dementia isn't a normal part of aging, and dementia can occur in younger people.
  • Family history. Having a family history of dementia puts you at greater risk of developing the condition. However, many people with a family history never develop symptoms, and many people without a family history do. There are tests to determine whether you have certain genetic mutations.
  • Down syndrome. By middle age, many people with Down syndrome develop early-onset Alzheimer's disease.
Risk factors you can change You might be able to control the following risk factors for dementia.
  • Diet and exercise. Research shows that lack of exercise increases the risk of dementia. And while no specific diet is known to reduce dementia risk, research indicates a greater incidence of dementia in people who eat an unhealthy diet compared with those who follow a Mediterranean-style diet rich in produce, whole grains, nuts and seeds.
  • Heavy alcohol use. If you drink large amounts of alcohol, you might have a higher risk of dementia. While some studies have shown that moderate amounts of alcohol might have a protective effect, results are inconsistent. The relationship between moderate amounts of alcohol and dementia risk isn't well-understood.
  • Cardiovascular risk factors. These include high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol, buildup of fats in your artery walls (atherosclerosis) and obesity.
  • Depression. Although not yet well-understood, late-life depression might indicate the development of dementia.
  • Diabetes. Having diabetes may increase your risk of dementia, especially if it's poorly controlled.
  • Smoking. Smoking might increase your risk of developing dementia and blood vessel (vascular) diseases.
  • Sleep apnea. People who snore and have episodes where they frequently stop breathing while asleep may have reversible memory loss.
  • Vitamin and nutritional deficiencies. Low levels of vitamin D, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate may increase your risk of dementia.

CEN Dementia - Complications

Dementia can affect many body systems and, therefore, the ability to function. Dementia can lead to:
  • Poor nutrition. Many people with dementia eventually reduce or stop eating, affecting their nutrient intake. Ultimately, they may be unable to chew and swallow.
  • Pneumonia. Difficulty swallowing increases the risk of choking or aspirating food into the lungs, which can block breathing and cause pneumonia.
  • Inability to perform self-care tasks. As dementia progresses, it can interfere with bathing, dressing, brushing hair or teeth, using the toilet independently, and taking medications accurately.
  • Personal safety challenges. Some day-to-day situations can present safety issues for people with dementia, including driving, cooking and walking alone.
  • Death. Late-stage dementia results in coma and death, often from infection.

CEN Dementia - Treatment

Most types of dementia can't be cured, but there are ways to manage your symptoms. Medications The following are used to temporarily improve dementia symptoms.
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors. These medications — including donepezil (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon) and galantamine (Razadyne) — work by boosting levels of a chemical messenger involved in memory and judgment. Although primarily used to treat Alzheimer's disease, these medications might also be prescribed for other dementias, including vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease dementia and Lewy body dementia. Side effects can include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Other possible side effects include slowed heart rate, fainting and sleep disturbances.
  • Memantine. Memantine (Namenda) works by regulating the activity of glutamate, another chemical messenger involved in brain functions, such as learning and memory. In some cases, memantine is prescribed with a cholinesterase inhibitor. A common side effect of memantine is dizziness.
  • Other medications. Your doctor might prescribe medications to treat other symptoms or conditions, such as depression, sleep disturbances, hallucinations, parkinsonism or agitation.
Therapies Several dementia symptoms and behavior problems might be treated initially using nondrug approaches, such as:
  • Occupational therapy. An occupational therapist can show you how to make your home safer and teach coping behaviors. The purpose is to prevent accidents, such as falls; manage behavior; and prepare you for the dementia progression.
  • Modifying the environment. Reducing clutter and noise can make it easier for someone with dementia to focus and function. You might need to hide objects that can threaten safety, such as knives and car keys. Monitoring systems can alert you if the person with dementia wanders.
  • Simplifying tasks. Break tasks into easier steps and focus on success, not failure. Structure and routine also help reduce confusion in people with dementia.

Emergency Room Certification Courses (2020) - Most Current Exam Updates

There are several courses we have to offer emergency room nurse certification exam.  Each of the courses contain prep questions and/or online lectures.  For sample questions only; select the CEN Predictor Exam, CEN Question Bank or CEN Practice Questions Bundle.  If you are looking for questions and online lectures; select the CEN Review, CEN Online Review or the CEN Review Course Bundle. Connect With Us - Facebook - Instagram - Twitter  For More information on how to register for the National exam, go to (BCEN.org).  
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CEN Alzheimers Disease Review

cen Alzheimers Disease

CEN Alzheimers Disease (2020)

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person's ability to function independently. The early signs of the disease may be forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer's disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks. Current Alzheimer's disease medications may temporarily improve symptoms or slow the rate of decline. These treatments can sometimes help people with Alzheimer's disease maximize function and maintain independence for a time. Different programs and services can help support people with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. There is no treatment that cures Alzheimer's disease or alters the disease process in the brain. In advanced stages of the disease, complications from severe loss of brain function — such as dehydration, malnutrition or infection — result in death.

CEN Alzheimers Disease - Signs and Symptoms

Memory loss is the key symptom of Alzheimer's disease. An early sign of the disease is usually difficulty remembering recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, memory impairments worsen and other symptoms develop. At first, a person with Alzheimer's disease may be aware of having difficulty with remembering things and organizing thoughts. A family member or friend may be more likely to notice how the symptoms worsen.

CEN Alzheimers Disease - Causes

Scientists believe that for most people, Alzheimer's disease is caused by a combination of genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors that affect the brain over time. Less than 1 percent of the time, Alzheimer's is caused by specific genetic changes that virtually guarantee a person will develop the disease. These rare occurrences usually result in disease onset in middle age. The exact causes of Alzheimer's disease aren't fully understood, but at its core are problems with brain proteins that fail to function normally, disrupt the work of brain cells (neurons) and unleash a series of toxic events. Neurons are damaged, lose connections to each other and eventually die. The damage most often starts in the region of the brain that controls memory, but the process begins years before the first symptoms. The loss of neurons spreads in a somewhat predictable pattern to other regions of the brains. By the late stage of the disease, the brain has shrunk significantly.

CEN Alzheimers Disease - Risk Factors

  • Age
  • Family history and genetics
  • Down syndrome
  • Sex
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Past head trauma
  • Poor sleep patterns
  • Lifestyle and heart health
  • Lifelong learning and social engagement

CEN Alzheimers Disease - Complications

Memory and language loss, impaired judgment, and other cognitive changes caused by Alzheimer's can complicate treatment for other health conditions. A person with Alzheimer's disease may not be able to:
  • Communicate that he or she is experiencing pain — for example, from a dental problem
  • Report symptoms of another illness
  • Follow a prescribed treatment plan
  • Notice or describe medication side effects
As Alzheimer's disease progresses to its last stages, brain changes begin to affect physical functions, such as swallowing, balance, and bowel and bladder control. These effects can increase vulnerability to additional health problems such as:
  • Inhaling food or liquid into the lungs (aspiration)
  • Pneumonia and other infections
  • Falls
  • Fractures
  • Bedsores
  • Malnutrition or dehydration

CEN Alzheimers Disease - Prevention

  • Exercise regularly
  • Eat a diet of fresh produce, healthy oils and foods low in saturated fat
  • Follow treatment guidelines to manage high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol
  • If you smoke, ask your doctor for help to quit smoking

CEN Alzheimers Disease - Treatment

Current Alzheimer's medications can help for a time with memory symptoms and other cognitive changes. Two types of drugs are currently used to treat cognitive symptoms:
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors. These drugs work by boosting levels of cell-to-cell communication by preserving a chemical messenger that is depleted in the brain by Alzheimer's disease. The improvement is modest. Cholinesterase inhibitors may also improve neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as agitation or depression. Commonly prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne) and rivastigmine (Exelon). The main side effects of these drugs include diarrhea, nausea, loss of appetite and sleep disturbances. In people with cardiac conduction disorders, serious side effects may include cardiac arrhythmia.
  • Memantine (Namenda). This drug works in another brain cell communication network and slows the progression of symptoms with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. It's sometimes used in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor. Relatively rare side effects include dizziness and confusion.

Emergency Room Certification Courses (2020) - Most Current Exam Updates

There are several courses we have to offer emergency room nurse certification exam.  Each of the courses contain prep questions and/or online lectures.  For sample questions only; select the CEN Predictor Exam, CEN Question Bank or CEN Practice Questions Bundle.  If you are looking for questions and online lectures; select the CEN Review, CEN Online Review or the CEN Review Course Bundle. Connect With Us - Facebook - Instagram - Twitter  For More information on how to register for the National exam, go to (BCEN.org).  
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CEN Esophagitis Review

CEN Esophagitis

CEN Esophagitis (2020)

Esophagitis is inflammation that may damage tissues of the esophagus, the muscular tube that delivers food from your mouth to your stomach. Esophagitis can cause painful, difficult swallowing and chest pain. Causes of esophagitis include stomach acids backing up into the esophagus, infection, oral medications and allergies. Treatment for esophagitis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of tissue damage. If left untreated, esophagitis can damage the lining of the esophagus and interfere with its normal function, which is to move food and liquid from your mouth to your stomach. Esophagitis can also lead to complications such as scarring or narrowing of the esophagus, and difficulty swallowing.

CEN Esophagitis - Signs and Symptoms

  • Difficult swallowing
  • Painful swallowing
  • Chest pain, particularly behind the breastbone, that occurs with eating
  • Swallowed food becoming stuck in the esophagus (food impaction)
  • Heartburn
  • Acid regurgitation

CEN Esophagitis - Causes

  • Reflux esophagitis
  • Eosinophilic esophagitis
  • Lymphocytic esophagitis
  • Drug-induced esophagitis
  • Infectious esophagitis

CEN Esophagitis - Complications

  • Scarring or narrowing (stricture) of the esophagus
  • Tearing of the esophagus lining tissue from retching (if food gets stuck) or during endoscopy (due to inflammation)
  • Barrett's esophagus, characterized by changes to the cells lining the esophagus, increasing your risk of esophageal cancer

CEN Esophagitis - Treatment

Treatments for esophagitis are intended to lessen symptoms, manage complications and treat underlying causes of the disorder. Treatment strategies vary primarily based on the cause of the disorder.

Emergency Room Certification Courses (2020) - Most Current Exam Updates

There are several courses we have to offer emergency room nurse certification exam.  Each of the courses contain prep questions and/or online lectures.  For sample questions only; select the CEN Predictor Exam, CEN Question Bank or CEN Practice Questions Bundle.  If you are looking for questions and online lectures; select the CEN Review, CEN Online Review or the CEN Review Course Bundle. Connect With Us - Facebook - Instagram - Twitter  For More information on how to register for the National exam, go to (BCEN.org).  
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CEN Gastroenteritis Review

CEN Gastroenteritis

CEN Gastroenteritis (2020)

Viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection marked by watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea or vomiting, and sometimes fever. The most common way to develop viral gastroenteritis — often called stomach flu —is through contact with an infected person or by ingesting contaminated food or water. If you're otherwise healthy, you'll likely recover without complications. But for infants, older adults and people with compromised immune systems, viral gastroenteritis can be deadly. There's no effective treatment for viral gastroenteritis, so prevention is key. In addition to avoiding food and water that may be contaminated, thorough and frequent hand-washings are your best defense.

CEN Gastroenteritis - Signs and Symptoms

  • Watery, usually nonbloody diarrhea — bloody diarrhea usually means you have a different, more severe infection
  • Abdominal cramps and pain
  • Nausea, vomiting or both
  • Occasional muscle aches or headache
  • Low-grade fever

CEN Gastroenteritis - Causes

You're most likely to contract viral gastroenteritis when you eat or drink contaminated food or water, or if you share utensils, towels or food with someone who's infected. A number of viruses can cause gastroenteritis, including:
  • Noroviruses
  • Rotavirus

CEN Gastroenteritis - Risk Factors

People who may be more susceptible to gastroenteritis include:
  • Young children. Children in child care centers or elementary schools may be especially vulnerable because it takes time for a child's immune system to mature.
  • Older adults. Adult immune systems tend to become less efficient later in life. Older adults in nursing homes, in particular, are vulnerable because their immune systems weaken and they live in close contact with others who may pass along germs.
  • Schoolchildren, churchgoers or dormitory residents. Anywhere that groups of people come together in close quarters can be an environment for an intestinal infection to get passed.
  • Anyone with a weakened immune system. If your resistance to infection is low — for instance, if your immune system is compromised by HIV/AIDS, chemotherapy or another medical condition — you may be especially at risk.

CEN Gastroenteritis - Complications

The main complication of viral gastroenteritis is dehydration — a severe loss of water and essential salts and minerals. If you're healthy and drink enough to replace fluids you lose from vomiting and diarrhea, dehydration shouldn't be a problem. Infants, older adults and people with suppressed immune systems may become severely dehydrated when they lose more fluids than they can replace. Hospitalization might be needed so that lost fluids can be replaced intravenously. Dehydration can be fatal, but rarely.

CEN Gastroenteritis - Treatments

There's often no specific medical treatment for viral gastroenteritis. Antibiotics aren't effective against viruses, and overusing them can contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Treatment initially consists of self-care measures.

Emergency Room Certification Courses (2020) - Most Current Exam Updates

There are several courses we have to offer emergency room nurse certification exam.  Each of the courses contain prep questions and/or online lectures.  For sample questions only; select the CEN Predictor Exam, CEN Question Bank or CEN Practice Questions Bundle.  If you are looking for questions and online lectures; select the CEN Review, CEN Online Review or the CEN Review Course Bundle. Connect With Us - Facebook - Instagram - Twitter  For More information on how to register for the National exam, go to (BCEN.org).  
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CEN Peritonitis Review

CEN Peritonitis

CEN Peritonitis (2020)

Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum — a silk-like membrane that lines your inner abdominal wall and covers the organs within your abdomen — that is usually due to a bacterial or fungal infection. There are two types of peritonitis:
  • Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Sometimes, peritonitis develops as a complication of liver disease, such as cirrhosis, or of kidney disease.
  • Secondary peritonitis. Peritonitis can result from rupture (perforation) in your abdomen, or as a complication of other medical conditions.
Peritonitis requires prompt medical attention to fight the infection and, if necessary, to treat any underlying medical conditions. Peritonitis treatment usually involves antibiotics and, in some cases, surgery. Left untreated, peritonitis can lead to severe, potentially life-threatening infection throughout your body.

CEN Peritonitis - Signs and Symptoms

  • Abdominal pain or tenderness
  • Bloating or a feeling of fullness in your abdomen
  • Fever
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Diarrhea
  • Low urine output
  • Thirst
  • Inability to pass stool or gas
  • Fatigue
  • Confusion

CEN Peritonitis - Causes

  • Medical procedures, such as peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis uses tubes (catheters) to remove waste products from your blood when your kidneys can no longer adequately do so. An infection may occur during peritoneal dialysis due to unclean surroundings, poor hygiene or contaminated equipment. Peritonitis may also develop as a complication of gastrointestinal surgery, the use of feeding tubes, or a procedure to withdraw fluid from your abdomen, and rarely as a complication of a colonoscopy or endoscopy.
  • A ruptured appendix, stomach ulcer or perforated colon. Any of these conditions can allow bacteria to get into the peritoneum through a hole in your gastrointestinal tract.
  • Pancreatitis. Inflammation of your pancreas (pancreatitis) complicated by infection may lead to peritonitis if the bacteria spreads outside the pancreas.
  • Diverticulitis. Infection of small, bulging pouches in your digestive tract (diverticulosis) may cause peritonitis if one of the pouches ruptures, spilling intestinal waste into your abdominal cavity.
  • Trauma. Injury or trauma may cause peritonitis by allowing bacteria or chemicals from other parts of your body to enter the peritoneum.

CEN Peritonitis - Risk Factors

  • Peritoneal dialysis. Peritonitis can occur in people undergoing peritoneal dialysis therapy.
  • Other medical conditions. The following medical conditions, among others, increase your risk of developing peritonitis: liver cirrhosis, appendicitis, Crohn's disease, stomach ulcers, diverticulitis and pancreatitis.
  • History of peritonitis. Once you've had peritonitis, your risk of developing it again may be higher than it is for someone who has never had peritonitis.

CEN Peritonitis - Complications

Left untreated, peritonitis can extend beyond your peritoneum, where it may cause:
  • An infection throughout your body (sepsis). Sepsis is a rapidly progressing, life-threatening condition that can cause shock, organ failure and death.

CEN Peritonitis - Treatments

  • Antibiotics. You'll likely be given a course of antibiotic medication to fight the infection and prevent it from spreading. The type and duration of your antibiotic therapy will depend on the severity of your condition and the kind of peritonitis you have. You may be given an antibiotic that treats a wide spectrum of bacteria until doctors have more information about the specific bacteria causing your infection. Then they can more narrowly target your antibiotic.
  • Surgery. Surgery is often needed to remove infected tissue, treat the underlying cause of the infection, and prevent the infection from spreading, especially if peritonitis is due to a ruptured appendix, stomach or colon.
  • Other treatments. Depending on your signs and symptoms, your treatment while in the hospital will likely include pain medications, fluids given through a tube (intravenous fluids), oxygen and, in some cases, a blood transfusion.

Emergency Room Certification Courses (2020) - Most Current Exam Updates

There are several courses we have to offer emergency room nurse certification exam.  Each of the courses contain prep questions and/or online lectures.  For sample questions only; select the CEN Predictor Exam, CEN Question Bank or CEN Practice Questions Bundle.  If you are looking for questions and online lectures; select the CEN Review, CEN Online Review or the CEN Review Course Bundle. Connect With Us - Facebook - Instagram - Twitter  For More information on how to register for the National exam, go to (BCEN.org).  
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CEN Pyelonephritis Review

CEN Pyelonephritis

CEN Pyelonephritis (2020)

Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that generally begins in your urethra or bladder and travels to one or both of your kidneys. A kidney infection requires prompt medical attention. If not treated properly, a kidney infection can permanently damage your kidneys or the bacteria can spread to your bloodstream and cause a life-threatening infection. Kidney infection treatment, which usually includes antibiotics, might require hospitalization.

CEN Pyelonephritis - Signs and Symptoms

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Back, side (flank) or groin pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Frequent urination
  • Strong, persistent urge to urinate
  • Burning sensation or pain when urinating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Pus or blood in your urine (hematuria)
  • Urine that smells bad or is cloudy

CEN Pyelonephritis - Causes

Bacteria that enter your urinary tract through the tube that carries urine from your body (urethra) can multiply and travel to your kidneys. This is the most common cause of kidney infections. Bacteria from an infection elsewhere in your body also can spread through your bloodstream to your kidneys. Although it's unusual to develop a kidney infection, it can happen — for instance, if you have an artificial joint or heart valve that becomes infected.

CEN Pyelonephritis - Risk Factors

  • Being female. The urethra is shorter in women than it is in men, which makes it easier for bacteria to travel from outside the body to the bladder. The nearness of the urethra to the vagina and anus also creates more opportunities for bacteria to enter the bladder. Once in the bladder, an infection can spread to the kidneys. Pregnant women are at even higher risk of a kidney infection.
  • Having a urinary tract blockage. This includes anything that slows the flow of urine or reduces your ability to empty your bladder when urinating — including a kidney stone, something abnormal in your urinary tract's structure or, in men, an enlarged prostate gland.
  • Having a weakened immune system. This includes medical conditions that impair your immune system, such as diabetes and HIV. Certain medications, such as drugs taken to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, have a similar effect.
  • Having damage to nerves around the bladder. Nerve or spinal cord damage can block the sensations of a bladder infection so that you're unaware when it's advancing to a kidney infection.
  • Using a urinary catheter for a time. Urinary catheters are tubes used to drain urine from the bladder. You might have a catheter placed during and after some surgical procedures and diagnostic tests. You might use one continuously if you're confined to a bed.
  • Having a condition that causes urine to flow the wrong way. In vesicoureteral reflux, small amounts of urine flow from your bladder back up into your ureters and kidneys. People with this condition are at higher risk of kidney infection during childhood and adulthood.

CEN Pyelonephritis - Treatment

Antibiotics are the first line of treatment for kidney infections. Which drugs you use and for how long depend on your health and the bacteria found in your urine tests. Usually, the signs and symptoms of a kidney infection begin to clear up within a few days of treatment. But you might need to continue antibiotics for a week or longer. Take the entire course of antibiotics recommended by your doctor even after you feel better.

Emergency Room Certification Courses (2020) - Most Current Exam Updates

There are several courses we have to offer emergency room nurse certification exam.  Each of the courses contain prep questions and/or online lectures.  For sample questions only; select the CEN Predictor Exam, CEN Question Bank or CEN Practice Questions Bundle.  If you are looking for questions and online lectures; select the CEN Review, CEN Online Review or the CEN Review Course Bundle. Connect With Us - Facebook - Instagram - Twitter  For More information on how to register for the National exam, go to (BCEN.org).  
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CEN Epididymitis Review

CEN Epididymitis

CEN Epididymitis (2020)

Epididymitis is an inflammation of the coiled tube (epididymis) at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. Males of any age can get epididymitis. Epididymitis is most often caused by a bacterial infection, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia. Sometimes, a testicle also becomes inflamed — a condition called epididymo-orchitis.

CEN Epididymitis - Signs and Symptoms

  • A swollen, red or warm scrotum
  • Testicle pain and tenderness, usually on one side, that usually comes on gradually
  • Painful urination or an urgent or frequent need to urinate
  • Discharge from the penis
  • Pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen or pelvic area
  • Blood in the semen
  • Less commonly, fever

CEN Epididymitis - Causes

  • STIs. Gonorrhea and chlamydia are the most common causes of epididymitis in young, sexually active men.
  • Other infections. Bacteria from a urinary tract or prostate infection might spread from the infected site to the epididymis. Also, viral infections, such as the mumps virus, can result in epididymitis.
  • Urine in the epididymis (chemical epididymitis). This condition occurs when urine flows backward into the epididymis, possibly because of heavy lifting or straining.
  • Trauma. A groin injury can cause epididymitis.
  • Tuberculosis. Rarely, epididymitis can be caused by tuberculosis infection.

CEN Epididymitis - Risk Factors

Certain sexual behaviors that can lead to STIs put you at risk of sexually transmitted epididymitis, including having:
  • Sex with a partner who has an STI
  • Sex without a condom
  • A history of STIs

CEN Epididymitis - Treatment

Antibiotics are needed to treat bacterial epididymitis and epididymo-orchitis. If the cause of the bacterial infection is an STI, your sexual partner also needs treatment. Take the entire course of antibiotics prescribed by your doctor, even if your symptoms clear up sooner, to ensure that the infection is gone. You should start to feel better within 48 to 72 hours of starting an antibiotic. Resting, supporting the scrotum with an athletic strap, applying ice packs and taking pain medication can help relieve discomfort.

Emergency Room Certification Courses (2020) - Most Current Exam Updates

There are several courses we have to offer emergency room nurse certification exam.  Each of the courses contain prep questions and/or online lectures.  For sample questions only; select the CEN Predictor Exam, CEN Question Bank or CEN Practice Questions Bundle.  If you are looking for questions and online lectures; select the CEN Review, CEN Online Review or the CEN Review Course Bundle. Connect With Us - Facebook - Instagram - Twitter  For More information on how to register for the National exam, go to (BCEN.org).  
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CEN Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Review

CEN Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

CEN Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (2020)

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs. It most often occurs when sexually transmitted bacteria spread from your vagina to your uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries. The signs and symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease can be subtle or mild. Some women don't experience any signs or symptoms. As a result, you might not realize you have it until you have trouble getting pregnant or you develop chronic pelvic pain.

CEN Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - Signs and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease might be mild and difficult to recognize. Some women don't have any signs or symptoms. When signs and symptoms of PID are present, they most often include:
  • Pain — ranging from mild to severe — in your lower abdomen and pelvis
  • Abnormal or heavy vaginal discharge that may have an unpleasant odor
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding, especially during or after intercourse, or between menstrual cycles
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Fever, sometimes with chills
  • Painful, frequent or difficult urination

CEN Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - Causes

Many types of bacteria can cause PID, but gonorrhea or chlamydia infections are the most common. These bacteria are usually acquired during unprotected sex. Less commonly, bacteria can enter your reproductive tract anytime the normal barrier created by the cervix is disturbed. This can happen during menstruation and after childbirth, miscarriage or abortion. Rarely, bacteria can also enter the reproductive tract during the insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) — a form of long-term birth control — or any medical procedure that involves inserting instruments into the uterus.

CEN Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - Risk Factors

  • Being a sexually active woman younger than 25 years old
  • Having multiple sexual partners
  • Being in a sexual relationship with a person who has more than one sex partner
  • Having sex without a condom
  • Douching regularly, which upsets the balance of good versus harmful bacteria in the vagina and might mask symptoms
  • Having a history of pelvic inflammatory disease or a sexually transmitted infection

CEN Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - Treatment

  • Antibiotics. Your doctor will prescribe a combination of antibiotics to start immediately. After receiving your lab test results, your doctor might adjust your prescription to better match what's causing the infection. You'll likely follow up with your doctor after three days to make sure the treatment is working. Be sure to take all of your medication, even if you start to feel better after a few days.
  • Treatment for your partner. To prevent reinfection with an STI, your sexual partner or partners should be examined and treated. Infected partners might not have any noticeable symptoms.
  • Temporary abstinence. Avoid sexual intercourse until treatment is completed and symptoms have resolved.

Emergency Room Certification Courses (2020) - Most Current Exam Updates

There are several courses we have to offer emergency room nurse certification exam.  Each of the courses contain prep questions and/or online lectures.  For sample questions only; select the CEN Predictor Exam, CEN Question Bank or CEN Practice Questions Bundle.  If you are looking for questions and online lectures; select the CEN Review, CEN Online Review or the CEN Review Course Bundle. Connect With Us - Facebook - Instagram - Twitter  For More information on how to register for the National exam, go to (BCEN.org).  
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CEN Testicular Torsion Review

CEN Testicular Torsion

CEN Testicular Torsion (2020)

Testicular torsion occurs when a testicle rotates, twisting the spermatic cord that brings blood to the scrotum. The reduced blood flow causes sudden and often severe pain and swelling. Testicular torsion is most common between ages 12 and 18, but it can occur at any age, even before birth. Testicular torsion usually requires emergency surgery. If treated quickly, the testicle can usually be saved. But when blood flow has been cut off for too long, a testicle might become so badly damaged that it has to be removed.

CEN Testicular Torsion - Signs and Symptoms

  • Sudden, severe pain in the scrotum — the loose bag of skin under your penis that contains the testicles
  • Swelling of the scrotum
  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • A testicle that's positioned higher than normal or at an unusual angle
  • Frequent urination
  • Fever

CEN Testicular Torsion - Causes

Testicular torsion occurs when the testicle rotates on the spermatic cord, which brings blood to the testicle from the abdomen. If the testicle rotates several times, blood flow to it can be entirely blocked, causing damage more quickly. It's not clear why testicular torsion occurs. Most males who get testicular torsion have an inherited trait that allows the testicle to rotate freely inside the scrotum. This inherited condition often affects both testicles. But not every male with the trait will have testicular torsion. Testicular torsion often occurs several hours after vigorous activity, after a minor injury to the testicles or while sleeping. Cold temperature or rapid growth of the testicle during puberty also might play a role.

CEN Testicular Torsion - Risk Factors

  • Age. Testicular torsion is most common between ages 12 and 18.
  • Previous testicular torsion. If you've had testicular pain that went away without treatment (intermittent torsion and detorsion), it's likely to occur again. The more frequent the bouts of pain, the higher the risk of testicular damage.
  • Family history of testicular torsion

CEN Testicular Torsion - Complications

  • Damage to or death of the testicle. When testicular torsion is not treated for several hours, blocked blood flow can cause permanent damage to the testicle. If the testicle is badly damaged, it has to be surgically removed.
  • Inability to father children. In some cases, damage or loss of a testicle affects a man's ability to father children.

CEN Testicular Torsion - Treatment

Surgery is required to correct testicular torsion. In some instances, the doctor might be able to untwist the testicle by pushing on the scrotum (manual detorsion). But you'll still need surgery to prevent torsion from occurring again. Surgery for testicular torsion is usually done under general anesthesia. During surgery, your doctor will make a small cut in your scrotum, untwist your spermatic cord, if necessary, and stitch one or both testicles to the inside of the scrotum. The sooner the testicle is untwisted, the greater the chance it can be saved. After six hours from the start of pain, the chances of needing testicle removal are greatly increased. If treatment is delayed more than 12 hours from the start of pain, there is at least a 75 percent chance of needing testicle removal.

Emergency Room Certification Courses (2020) - Most Current Exam Updates

There are several courses we have to offer emergency room nurse certification exam.  Each of the courses contain prep questions and/or online lectures.  For sample questions only; select the CEN Predictor Exam, CEN Question Bank or CEN Practice Questions Bundle.  If you are looking for questions and online lectures; select the CEN Review, CEN Online Review or the CEN Review Course Bundle. Connect With Us - Facebook - Instagram - Twitter  For More information on how to register for the National exam, go to (BCEN.org).  
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CEN Myasthenia Gravis Review

CEN Myasthenia Gravis

CEN Myasthenia Gravis (2020)

Myasthenia gravis is characterized by weakness and rapid fatigue of any of the muscles under your voluntary control. It's caused by a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. There's no cure for myasthenia gravis, but treatment can help relieve signs and symptoms, such as weakness of arm or leg muscles, double vision, drooping eyelids, and difficulties with speech, chewing, swallowing and breathing. Though this disease can affect people of any age, it's more common in women younger than 40 and in men older than 60.

CEN Myasthenia Gravis - Signs and Symptoms

Muscle weakness caused by myasthenia gravis worsens as the affected muscle is used. Because symptoms usually improve with rest, muscle weakness can come and go. However, the symptoms tend to progress over time, usually reaching their worst within a few years after the onset of the disease.
  • Ptosis
  • Diplopia
  • Impaired speaking
  • Difficulty swallowing and chewing

CEN Myasthenia Gravis - Causes

  • Antibodies
  • Thymus glands

CEN Myasthenia Gravis - Complications

Complications of myasthenia gravis are treatable, but some can be life-threatening.
  • Myasthenic crisis
  • Thymus gland tumors
  • Underactive or Overactive thyroid
  • Autoimmune conditions

CEN Myasthenia Gravis - Treatment 

Various treatments, alone or in combination, can relieve symptoms of myasthenia gravis. Your treatment will depend on your age, how severe your disease is and how fast it's progressing.
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors
  • Corticosteroids
  • Immunosuppressants
  • IV therapy
  • Surgery

Emergency Room Certification Courses (2020) - Most Current Exam Updates

There are several courses we have to offer emergency room nurse certification exam.  Each of the courses contain prep questions and/or online lectures.  For sample questions only; select the CEN Predictor Exam, CEN Question Bank or CEN Practice Questions Bundle.  If you are looking for questions and online lectures; select the CEN Review, CEN Online Review or the CEN Review Course Bundle. Connect With Us - Facebook - Instagram - Twitter  For More information on how to register for the National exam, go to (BCEN.org).  
Read more...